The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders:Working to Benefit from ADD/ADHD to Autism

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The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders:
Working to Benefit from
ADD/ADHD to Autism
Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA 360 E Irving Park RD, Roselle, IL (630) 894-8778
Selected 2006 & 2007 “Guide To America’s Top Chiropractors” 2008 “ Five Star Excellence Award in Chiropractic”
What are Sensory Processing Disorders?
 Any condition which demonstrates the inability to process information through the Senses.  Interestingly the DMSR does not acknowledge this sensory component in ASD (only language, social and behavioral variations).
Inter-related Conditions?
 ADD/ADHD: 5 Million Children in USA alone  Autism: Every 21 minutes another Child is Diagnosed.  Challenged Child: 12 to 30% of Children.
How is Information Gathered for Our Sensory System?
 Though Senses  Through Reflexes
Body Senses Include
 Far Senses - Allow us to
respond to stimuli outside our body: Hear See Taste Touch Smell
 Near Senses - Or
Hidden Senses – Automatically respond within our body to stimuli: Body Position/Awareness Movement/Balance
What are the Primitive Reflexes?
 Primitive reflexes are automatic survival responses to stimuli (Sensory Input) which develop during uterine life and should be fully present at birth.
 Asymmetrical/ Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex –  Moro Reflex –  Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex –  Fear Paralysis Reflex –  Palmar Reflex –  Plantar Reflex –  Babinski Reflex –  Spinal Galant Reflex  Suck and Rooting Reflex –
Primitive Reflexes Charted
Anatomy of Primitive Reflexes:
 Within the brainstem
– Oldest part of the brain (Reptilian or PreCortical) => Midbrain => Cortical
 Automatic vs Volitional  Stimulus elicited (e.g. A Chocolate Cookie)  Survival / Instinctual  As higher brain centers mature or the PR’s Integrate more voluntary Postural Reflexes and Cortical development occurs
What are Retained Primitive Reflexes?
 These are primitive reflexes that remain and do not integrate, therefore postural reflexes do not develop fully resulting in a “Reflexive No Man’s Land” or “ A Reflexive Seesaw” (e.g. Car stuck in the Snow).  Thus the body remains under the influence of involuntary responses instead of voluntary.
 Retained Primitive Reflexes cause:
 Difficult voluntary movements and Balance  Irregular Visual Perception  Irregular Auditory Processing  Irregular Sensory Perception
Observing SPD’s
An Individual defined as having SPD concerns exhibits variations of sensory activity in : Frequency Intensity Duration Observed as either as a Hypersensitivity or a Hyposensitivity
The Sensitivity of the Seven Senses in SPD
 Hypersensitive requires less stimulation
       Avoids sounds Overwhelmed by intense visual Object to textures and gag Avoid textures and being touched Avoids odors Rigid and uncoordinated Apprehensive running, climbing and swinging       
 Hyposensitive - requires
more stimulation
Appears to ignore sound Appears uninterested by visual Tastes inedible objects Chews and presses into objects Unaware of unpleasant odors Limp and clumsy Craves rocking, twirling and fidgets
How SPD Presents
More Specific Retention Symptoms of Retained Reflexes:
Fear Paralysis Reflex
• • Oppositional Defiance “The Screaming Child” Poor Manual Dexterity (Thumb) • Speech Difficulties • Manual Tasks Inhibit Talking • Difficult writing (w/Mouth Motion) •
Palmar Reflex
• Aggressive • Overactive (Ready-Fire-Aim) • Overemotional (Weeping Anger) *Learning Difficulty • “Can’t Turn Off” • Hypersensitive to sense
Moro Reflex

Plantar Reflex
Trouble w/Gait, Run, Toe Walk

Adrenal Fatigue=> Weak Immune
• •
Rooting/Suck Reflex
Difficult Chew, Speech and Dribble Often w/ Car & Sport Injury, Dental
More Specifics on Retained Symptoms:
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex:
• Easily Distracted • Poor Pencil Grip, Excessive Grip • Missing Visual Reading Fields When reading • Difficult Distance Perception • Difficult tasks involving both sides of Body • Poor Ball Skills • Learning Difficulty
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex:
• Poor Judgment of Balance, Space, Distance, Depth & Motion • Motion Sickness • “Floppy” or “Rigid” Child • Fatigue when Neck Flexed • Learning Difficulty
Spinal Gallant Reflex:
• Delayed Sitting • Abnormal Gait/Posture • Poor Bladder/ Bed Wetting • “Ant’s in Pants” Child • Learning Difficulty
Difficulty with Senses and Reflexes
Difficulty with Skills
Motor/ Muscle Tone Cognition Communication Socialization Independence
Difficulty with Behaviors
Impulsiveness Self Control Distractibility Frustration Social Emotional
SPD Expression
 Cause:
Difficulty with Senses and Reflexes
 Effect
Difficulty with Skills and Behavior
Low Self Esteem
 Traditional
Treats causes as genetic, pre-postnatal trauma and unknown Treatment is geared from outside the body to inside the body ( e.g. Behavioral
 Alternative
Treats the structure in order to improve the function as cause is a Sensory & Reflex imbalance System Overwhelmed Treatment is geared from inside the body to outside the body (e.g. Chiropractic and
Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
Controlling the Senses and the Reflexes
 The Central Nervous System (CNS), comprised of the brain, brain stem, the cranial nerves, the spinal cord and the nerve attachments controls the senses and the reflexes.
CNS Involvement
 Hear………………………………CN 8 (Vestibular Cochlear)  See………………………..CN 2(Optic)..CN 3(Occulomotor), CN 4(Trochlear)..CN 6 (Abducens)  Taste………………………………..CN 9(Glossopharyngeal)  Touch……..............................Afferent and Spinal Pathways  Smell…………………………………………..CN 1 (Olfactory)  Body Position...................CN 8, Brain stem and Spinal cord  Movement………………………..Brain stem and Spinal cord
Cranial Nerves Involvement
CNS Structure and Function
 The Cranium and Spinal Cord are the boney structures protecting the CNS.
Improper Structure Processing
(Alignment and Position)
Improper Function
Improper Sensory and Reflex
(Motion and Nerve Communication)
Improve Structure
Improve Function
Improve Sensory and Reflex Processing
The Link
 The CNS and its intimately related boney protective network form the profound link of communication and functional interaction between an individual’s internal and external environments.
Craniosacral Therapy (CST)
 Focuses on relieving pressure on the brain and spinal cord through manual pressure techniques used at the cranium and sacrum.
The Craniosacral System
 Consists of membranes and cerebral spinal fluid, which protect the CNS.  Restrictions in this system are detected, and corrections are identified through manual monitoring of the craniosacral rhythm (CSR).
The Bones to the Senses and Reflexes
The Bones in Motion
Variations in CSR.
 Variations in the CSR (6-12 bpm) could indicated any number of motor, sensory, reflex or neurological impairments, as well as causes of pain.
The Chiropractic Approach to the CNS
 Chiropractors identify the necessity for the reduction of Subluxations, and utilize gentle spinal pressure techniques called Adjustments in order to remove Subluxations.
What are Subluxations?
 CNS irritation characterized by:
– – – – – Irregular boney mechanics or spinal misalignment Nerves imbalances Muscle irritations Tissue inflammation Degenerative wear
The poor structure or mechanics involved in creating Subluxations results in poor motor, sensory, reflex and neurological function, as well as causes of pain.
Spinal Involvement
The Best of Both Worlds
 CST and Chiropractic adjustments work to restore more appropriate motor, sensory, reflex and neurological input and therefore improve function.  Improve Structure Improve Function
 Working inside to out and not outside to in.
Measuring CNS Function
 Health care practitioners are challenged to quantify variations of the CNS communication with SPD conditions.  Frequently conventional tests such as blood markers, MRI’s and EEG’s appear unremarkable.
The CNS Simplified
Noninvasive Testing of the CNS
 Infrared Thermography
Measures temperature variations along the spine as indications of imbalances in the Autonomic nervous system which result from subluxations within the CNS.
 Surface Electromyography
Illustrates the effectiveness of motor nerves by measuring the amount of current at the muscle, with imbalances being indication of subluxations within the CNS.
Infrared Thermography
Surface Electromyography
More Scans
 There is no HealthCare that is guaranteed or without risk.  However, Chiropractic and CST are among the most safe effective in benefiting the CNS.
A Mom’s Story
Dear Parents, After a frustrating year of indifferent doctors who ignored my concerns about my son, finding Dr Chapple was like a gift. Over weeks of therapy he has improved considerably. He no longer cocks his head. Spins or presses his forehead onto me. In Fact, we took him for a haircut, and for the first time he sat still for the whole thing….No unfinished haircut, frantic barber or parents. It’s sad, but I had never really noticed that he didn’t run very much before. When he did…he ran on his toes with a very awkward gait. Now he races around on his little feet for the sheer joy of running that all children have.
More Resources:
  
Some Help from Michelangelo…
 “the danger that exist is not aiming to high and reaching it, but aiming to low and achieving it.”  We can never aim to high for our children
The Structure and Function of Sensory Processing Disorders
Charles W Chapple, DC, FICPA
360 E Irving Park Rd, Roselle, IL 60172 (630) 894-8778